There are a number of institutions of higher learning in and around the city, including the Ohm Polytechnic Institute for Applied Technology and part of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. The Academy of Arts, founded in 1662, is the oldest in Germany. Other institutions include the Pegnesische Blumenorden, a literary society founded in 1644, and the city’s public library, which is more than 600 years old.
The city is the home of the unique National Germanic Museum, chartered in 1852; it features a complete collection of Dürer’s printed graphic works and is the largest museum of German art and culture. There are also museums of toys, transport, and art and design. Popular local events include a festival held in the historic city center in September and a Christmas market (Christkindlesmarkt). Pop. (2011) 486,314; (2014 est.) 501,072.